Regardless of if every K-pop music fandom is actually targeted at men idols, it report concentrates primarily to the intimate objectification, lookism, and you will sexism into the lady idols’ tunes therefore the prospective influence on fans’ (generally younger women) gender thinking
It is very important research this part of K-pop music because it is far more tricky with regards to new dim truth regarding gender situations during the Korea: In the event Korea enjoys effectively modernized their benefit, it lags far behind almost every other OECD (Organization to own Economic Co-operation and you will Creativity) regions with regards to sex equivalence ( Bethmann & Rudolf, 2016 ; Rudolf & Kang, 2015 ). Presenting the newest largest gender spend pit and also the poor functioning environment for ladies among steeped nations, Korea’s ranks on the Internationally Intercourse Pit Directory try toward par which have Muslim-majority places really-recognized for the discrimination against people and you may ranked better underneath the stubbornly patriarchal The japanese ( GGGR, 2015 ; PwC, 2017 ; The Economist, 2016 ).
Scholars was in fact looking at and criticizing this new extremely sexualized, often sexist content, and the propagation away from lookism inside the K-pop music and you will sharing the potential effect on K-pop admirers. In accordance with these types of conversations and you may acknowledging the possible lack of difficult research about discussion, this report indicates the next hypothesis: When the K-pop in fact produces sexist maxims and the objectification of females (just like the created in area II), their around the globe achievement could have bad consequences to your growth of gender equality international. ; and dos) What’s the relationship anywhere between K-pop music fandom and you can fans’ thinking to your division out-of work anywhere between anyone contained in this and you will away from house?
This study mainly results in the existing books about following several implies. Basic, that with a special and you will freshly built-up research gang of six,317 observations off 100 nations, this research adds uncommon difficult empirical facts for the debate off how K-pop influences fans’ gender attitudes. Second, the research suggests exactly how sexism, lookism, and sexualization will most likely not just be smooth cultural facts, but might actually dictate private attitudes exactly how paid down and outstanding works will be divided between men and women. However, it has to be also detailed that the analysis does not want determine any causal outcomes. Because of the constraints from a mix-sectional survey structure, abilities must be translated given that correlations instead of causation.
Thus, the study issues are examined are as follows: 1) What is the relationship between your degree of K-pop music fandom (mentioned by the your readiness to fund K-pop music situations and you can activities) and you may individual sex perceptions?
The rest of this post is structured below. This can deliver the abstract cause for the research hypothesis and the brand new empirical studies. Point III brings up the new questionnaire construction, investigation put and you will details, and you can gift suggestions descriptive analytics of your details utilized in this research. Part IV gift suggestions the brand new empirical methods useful for studies and you may empirical efficiency. Part V ends the content.
Sexism, eg sexist perceptions with the lady, which largely come from antique stereotypes in the gender spots, is among the head offenders one to substitute just how regarding intercourse equality. Previous studies have examined intercourse-role stereotyping in the audio video ( Aubrey & Frisby, 2011 ; Kalof, 1999 ; Kistler & Lee, 2009 ; Seidman, 1992 ) or any other media versions ( Lauzen, Dozier, & Horan, 2008 ; Wood, 1994 ), and found one compared to the men, women can be more likely to feel sexually objectified and you may kept so you can stricter looks standards. Also, ladies are also often portrayed with techniques one stresses antique gender roles: men was indeed more powerful, dominating, competitive, and you can violent, if you’re females was basically expected to be demonstrated because weakened, based, submissive, and nurturing. However some K-pop music organizations and you can idols appear to difficulty traditional intercourse opportunities as a consequence of its androgynous otherwise homoerotic imageries (eg, Amber away from f(x), Jo Kwon out of 2AM, and you can Lee Hong-gi off F.T. Island) and remind alot more egalitarian gender perceptions, all of the main-stream K-pop music music artists, like lady organizations, was compliant with the popular stereotypes.